The fee that a card issuing bank charges for a transaction is called the interchange fee. This fee is fairly straightforward and is withdrawn, as a single price point, directly during the transaction. This price point can vary a lot depending on card type, country and industry. Private cards are priced lower than corporate cards, domestic purchases have lower fees than international purchases and so on.
Depending on these variables every transaction is placed in a certain interchange program that has a specific fee and, as a result, interchange fees can vary quite a bit. Within European Economic Area (EEA) the interchange fee for consumers is capped at 0,2% of the transaction value for debit and 0,3% for credit. For international and high-risk transactions, on the other hand, interchange fees can be as high as 2% of the transaction value. As of 19 October 2019, interchange fees for cards issued outside the EEA will also be capped in the EU. For in-store transactions the new levels will be 0,2% for debit cards and 0,3% for credit cards. For online transactions, the cap will be set at 1,15% for debit and 1,5% for credit cards.